Example image of eyePlorer eyePlorer map for 'Abd ar-Rahman I': Caliphate of Córdoba Córdoba, Spain Iberian Peninsula Muslim Quraysh Umayyad Caliphate Al-Andalus Abbasid Caliphate Muslim conquests Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik Abd al-Malik Mecca Christian Olfaction Damascus Euphrates Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari List of Muslim historians Egypt Sinai Peninsula Maghreb East Africa Ceuta Arab people Ummah Almuñécar Málaga Counterattack Hodge-podge Toledo, Spain Safe haven Al-Mansur Baghdad Al-Ala Beja (Portugal) Portugal Charlemagne Basque people Duchy of Vasconia The Song of Roland Siege engine Defensive wall Great Mosque of Córdoba North Africa Standing army Religious toleration Wittiza Abd-ar-Rahman III Favorite son Hisham I of Córdoba
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