Example image of eyePlorer eyePlorer map for 'Atatürk's Reforms': Nation state Politics of Turkey Reform movement Secularism in Turkey Turkey Kemalist ideology Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Turkish Constitution of 1924 Ottoman Empire Interwar period Popular sovereignty Representative democracy 1922 1924 Caliphate March 3 November 1 Ottoman Dynasty 150 personae non gratae of Turkey 1923 October 29 Republic Lower house Upper house Grand National Assembly of Turkey Unicameralism Direct election Proportional representation Separation of powers Multi-party system Millet (Ottoman Empire) Antitheism Islamophobia Presidency of Religious Affairs Antireligion Political aspects of Islam Secularity Sharia Swiss civil code Bonnet Fez (hat) Turban Suleiman the Magnificent Feudalism Peter I of Russia Russia Reforms of Peter I of Russia Ulema State organisation of the Ottoman Empire Canon law (Catholic Church)