Example image of eyePlorer eyePlorer map for 'Caliph': Caliphate Head of state Sharia Ummah Arabic language Muhammad Amir al-Mu'minin Imam Muslim Abbasid Caliphate Abu Bakr Egypt North Africa Ottoman Empire Umar Umayyad Caliphate Uthman ibn Affan Emir Sultan Ottoman Caliphate Turkey Fred Donner Shura Sunni Islam Shia Islam Ibadi Kharijites Oman Lieutenant Substitute Successor Islamic view of Adam Qur'an Natural resource Damascus Battle of Siffin Battle of Nahrawan Muslim history India Iran Europe Zubair ibn al-Awam ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) Turkic peoples Fatimid Caliphate Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah Al-Musta'sim Baghdad Hulagu Khan
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