Example image of eyePlorer eyePlorer map for 'Evolutionary computation': Artificial intelligence Combinatorial optimization Computational intelligence Computer science Population Artificial selection Parallel processing Randomness Evolution 1950s Darwinism 1960s Evolutionary programming Genetic algorithm John Henry Holland Lawrence J. Fogel United States Evolution strategy Germany Hans-Paul Schwefel Ingo Rechenberg 1990s Genetic programming Algorithm Ant colony optimization Artificial life Digital organism Evolutionary algorithm Growing neural gas Metaheuristic Particle swarm optimization Program optimization Self-organization Self-organizing map Swarm intelligence Mutation Natural selection Recombination Reproduction Survival of the fittest Candidate solution Fitness function Optimization (mathematics) Stochastic IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation Estimation of distribution algorithm Human-based evolutionary computation Interactive evolutionary computation No free lunch in search and optimization MIT Press