Example image of eyePlorer eyePlorer map for 'Parental investment': Evolutionary biology Fitness (biology) Offspring Parent Parental investment Inclusive fitness Sexual reproduction W. D. Hamilton Life history theory Fisher's principle Bateman's principle Lactation Mating Robert Trivers Sex Sexual selection Parent–offspring conflict Female Male Ectotherm Warm-blooded Semelparity and iteroparity Reproductive success Selection David C. Geary David Buss Brood parasite Runt R/K selection theory Greater Painted Snipe Human behavioral ecology Belostomatidae Competition (biology) Sexual cannibalism Black-tufted Marmoset God's utility function Infanticide (zoology) Sibling rivalry Sexual dimorphism Evolution of morality Sibling Polyandry Evolutionary psychology Mimicry Bird