Example image of eyePlorer eyePlorer map for 'Peace of Westphalia': 1648 Dutch Republic Dutch Revolt French language Germany Holy Roman Empire Münster Osnabrück Peace treaty Thirty Years' War Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor France Free imperial city Holy Roman Emperor House of Habsburg Princes of the Holy Roman Empire Sweden Diplomacy Sovereign state 1659 Franco-Spanish War (1635) Treaty of the Pyrenees European wars of religion Charles I of England English Civil War Cologne Cardinal Richelieu Hamburg Lübeck Treaty of Hamburg (1638) Westphalia Prince-Bishopric of Münster Catholicism Calvinism Lutheranism Burgher Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück Catholic League (German) Counter-Reformation Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg 1643 1646 1647 1649 Imperial State Abel Servien Claude de Mesmes, comte d'Avaux Henri II d'Orléans, duc de Longueville Axel Oxenstierna Johan Oxenstierna